The problems of management had been there since the dawn of organized life. The principles of management can be traced back many centuries but there had been no continuous historical development of management theories overall those years. Let us look at some of the contributions made in management thoughts.
Management has always faced with the problem of selecting various concepts from all these areas and integrating them in the process of making decisions regarding the major policies and day to day operations.
During the 19th century, the efforts of managers had been cope up with their environments and to organize and operate in those environments.
During the first one third of the century the attempt was to rationalize the way work was done. The emphasis was to increase the productivity of goods and services produced. After the World War II there was a considerable amount of change on the working conditions of the working men.
The working men began to demand that; work environment should meet part of their social needs in addition to the basic needs.
Then emerged the phase of human relations and the focus was on man’s social needs and the way of meeting them to increase productivity.
But later 1960’s it became clear that knowledge on which the management is based no longer adequate even the basic areas, there emerged needs for new knowledge particularly referred to productivity organization structure, job design and management of people.
There are nine concepts highlighting this period of management
- Scientific management a key to productivity.
- Decentralization for quicker decisions and better control.
- Personnel Management as a means of selecting people in organization.
- Manager’s development programmes to train mangers how to meet the needs of tomorrow.
- Management accounting – a foundation for managerial decision.
- Long range planning.
- Role of operational research in management decision making.
- Financial Management for effective utilization of money, resources in the organization.
Thus the process of development of the science of management can be studied under four heads.
(a) Taylor Scientific approach to management
(b) Henry Fayol’s functional approach
(c) Modern human relations approach
(d) Behavioral Science Approach